theory, the part of the personality which contains our
primitive impulses such as sex, anger, and hunger.
term representing the characteristics, behaviors,
emotions, and thoughts to which a person aspires.
Misperception of reality (e.g., the illusion of a lake
in the middle of a desert).
Utilizing the mind to
create a mental representation of a sensory
contradictory behavior when describing or experiencing
an emotion (e.g., smiling when discussing something
sad; laughing when talking about the death of a loved
Sample data that is independent or not related to each other.
The variable in an
experiment that is manipulated or compared.
process in which ideas are processed from the specific
to the general.
The area or specialty
in psychology focused on the application of
psychological principles in the work force.
The branch of statistics that focuses on describing in numerical format what might be happening or what might happen (estimation) in the future (probability). Inferential statistics required the testing of only a sample of the population. (Example: 100 students rather than all students).
such as spray paint, freon, and glue that produce an
intoxicating effect when inhaled.
legal term representing the inability to know right
from wrong or the inability to understand the
consequences of one's actions.
The understanding of
a relationship between current thoughts, feelings,
and/or behaviors and where these originated or how
they are maintained.
A behavior we are
born with and therefore does not need to be learned.
degree to which one can adapt
to one’s environment.
The scores achieved
on psychological tests aimed at quantifying
When the effect of one variable on another is
contingent on a third variable, this contingency is called an interaction
An estimate of how reliable a test is when items on the test are compared to each other. See split-half and odd-even reliability.
Locus of Control
that an individual has more control over life
circumstances than the environment does.
A measure of the trustworthiness of a sample of data. Internal validity looks at the subject, testing, and environment in which the data collection took place.
The difference between the scores
(or estimated scores) at the 75th percentile and the 25th percentile. Used more than the range because it eliminates extreme scores.
Estimating the population statistic based on
a range around a sample statistic.
Any scale of measurement possessing magnitude and equal intervals, but not an absolute zero.
subjective personality and mental health assessment
typically consisting of questions and answers.
The motivation or
desire to do something based on the enjoyment of the
behavior itself rather than relying on or requiring
process of examining one's own consciousness.
tendency to focus energy inward resulting in decreased